It Is Written

 

By  Yochanan Zaqantov

 

Many times we are told that by our Rabbanite brothers that the Oral Torah was given in addition to the Written Torah.  If this is so then shouldn’t there be a reference to an oral torah in the Torah, Joshua, or any of the prophets.  So what we are going to do it start down and look for what does the Tanakh say was given to Moshe.

 

First let look at the word for Written in the Tanakh. 

 

Katav (Kaf-Tav-Bet) which is found in the NEHC as reference number 3789 on page 621-623.  In the BDB it is found on page 507.  It is a verb and generally means to write.

 

Mikh’tav (Mem-Kaf-Tav-Bet) which is found in the NEHC as reference number 4385 on page 701. In the BDB on page 508.  The prefix being Mem it makes it a masculine noun and denotes it as “From writing”

 

KaKatav (Kaf-Kaf-Tav-Bet) is the same reference as 3789 as a verb but as a prefix it would denote “As or Like” thus the term in Enlgish “As it is written” would be “As written” or “Like Written”.

 

Yikh’tav (Yod-Kaf-Tav-Bet) is the same as reference 3789 but as a prefix it takes on the third person directing to an action.

 

Lets look specifically at some reference to this.

 

Shemot/Exodus 24:3-4 (Tanakh/BHS) 

3     Moses went and repeated to the people all the commands of YHWH and all the rules; and all the people answered with one voice, saying, “All the things that YHWH has commanded we will do!” 4     Moses then wrote down all the commands of YHWH. Early in the morning, he set up an altar at the foot of the mountain, with twelve pillars for the twelve tribes of Israel.

4 וַיִּכְתֹּב מֹשֶׁה אֵת כָּל־דִּבְרֵי יְהוָה וַיַּשְׁכֵּם בַּבֹּקֶר וַיִּבֶן מִזְבֵּחַ תַּחַת הָהָר וּשְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה מַצֵּבָה לִשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃

Shemot/Exodus 24:12 (Tanakh/BHS)

12     YHWH said to Moses, “Come up to Me on the mountain and wait there, and I will give you the stone tablets with the teachings and commandments which I have inscribed (I wrote) to instruct them.”

12 וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה עֲלֵה אֵלַי הָהָרָה וֶהְיֵה־שָׁם וְאֶתְּנָה לְךָ אֶת־לֻחֹת הָאֶבֶן וְהַתּוֹרָה וְהַמִּצְוָה אֲשֶׁר כָּתַבְתִּי לְהוֹרֹתָם׃

Shemot/Exodus 31:18 (Tanakh/BHS)

18     When He finished speaking with him on Mount Sinai, He gave Moses the two tablets of the Pact, stone tablets inscribed with the finger of Elohim.

18 וַיִּתֵּן אֶל־מֹשֶׁה כְּ‍כַלֹּתוֹ לְדַבֵּר אִתּוֹ בְּהַר סִינַי שְׁנֵי לֻחֹת הָעֵדֻת לֻחֹת אֶבֶן כְּתֻבִים בְּאֶצְבַּע אֱלֹהִים׃

 

Shemot/Exodus 32:15-16 (Tanakh/BHS) 15     Thereupon Moses turned and went down from the mountain bearing the two tablets of the Pact, tablets inscribed on both their surfaces: they were inscribed on the one side and on the other. 16     The tablets were Elohim’s work, and the writing was Elohim’s writing, incised upon the tablets.

15 וַיִּפֶן וַיֵּרֶד מֹשֶׁה מִן־הָהָר וּשְׁנֵי לֻחֹת הָעֵדֻת בְּיָדוֹ לֻחֹת כְּתֻבִים מִ‍שְּׁנֵי עֶבְרֵיהֶם מִ‍זֶּה וּמִ‍זֶּה הֵם כְּתֻבִים׃

16 וְהַלֻּחֹת מַעֲשֵׂה אֱלֹהִים הֵמָּה וְהַמִּכְתָּב מִכְתַּב אֱלֹהִים הוּא חָרוּת עַל־הַלֻּחֹת׃

Shemot/Exodus 32:32 (Tanakh/BHS)
32       Now, if You will forgive their sin [well and good]; but if not, erase me from the record which You have written!”

 

32 וְעַתָּה אִם־תִּשָּׂא חַטָּאתָם וְאִם־אַיִן מְחֵנִי נָא מִסִּפְרְךָ אֲשֶׁר כָּתָבְתָּ׃

Shemot/Exodus 34:27-28 (Tanakh/BHS)

27     And YHWH said to Moses: Write down these commandments, for in accordance with these commandments I make a covenant with you and with Israel.

28     And he was there with YHWH forty days and forty nights; he ate no bread and drank no water; and he wrote down on the tablets the terms of the covenant, the Ten Commandments.

 

27 וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה כְּתָב־לְךָ אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה כִּי עַל־פִּי הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה כָּרַתִּי אִתְּךָ בְּרִית וְאֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃

28 וַיְהִי־שָׁם עִם־יְהוָה אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם וְאַרְבָּעִים לַיְלָה לֶחֶם לֹא אָכַל וּמַיִם לֹא שָׁתָה וַיִּכְתֹּב עַל־הַלֻּחֹת אֵת דִּבְרֵי הַבְּרִית עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדְּבָרִים׃

Barmidbar/Numbers 33:2 (Tanakh/BHS)

2     Moses recorded (wrote) the starting points of their various marches as directed by YHWH. Their marches, by starting points, were as follows:

2 וַיִּכְתֹּב מֹשֶׁה אֶת־מוֹצָאֵיהֶם לְמַסְעֵיהֶם עַל־פִּי יְהוָה וְאֵלֶּה מַסְעֵיהֶם לְמוֹצָאֵיהֶם׃

Devarim/Deuteronomy 4:13 –14 (Tanakh/BHS)

13     He declared to you the covenant that He commanded you to observe, the Ten Commandments; and He inscribed (wrote) them on two tablets of stone. 14     At the same time YHWH commanded me to impart to you laws and rules for you to observe in the land that you are about to cross into and occupy.

 

13 וַיַּגֵּד לָכֶם אֶת־בְּרִיתוֹ אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה אֶתְכֶם לַעֲשׂוֹת עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדְּבָרִים וַיִּכְתְּבֵם עַל־שְׁנֵי לֻחוֹת אֲבָנִים׃

14 וְאֹתִי צִוָּה יְהוָה בָּעֵת הַהִוא לְלַמֵּד אֶתְכֶם חֻקִּים וּמִשְׁפָּטִים לַעֲשֹׂתְכֶם אֹתָם בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם עֹבְרִים שָׁמָּה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ׃

Devarim/Deuteronomy 5:22(19) (Tanakh/BHS) 19     YHWH spoke those words—those and no more—to your whole congregation at the mountain, with a mighty voice out of the fire and the dense clouds. He inscribed them on two tablets of stone, which He gave to me.

22 אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אֶל־כָּל־קְהַלְכֶם בָּהָר מִ‍תּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ הֶעָנָן וְהָעֲרָפֶל קוֹל גָּדוֹל וְלֹא יָסָף וַיִּכְתְּבֵם עַל־שְׁנֵי לֻחֹת אֲבָנִים וַיִּתְּנֵם אֵלָי׃

Devarim/Deuteronomy 10:2-4 (Tanakh/BHS)

2     I will inscribe (write) on the tablets the commandments that were on the first tablets that you smashed, and you shall deposit them in the ark.”

3     I made an ark of acacia wood and carved out two tablets of stone like the first; I took the two tablets with me and went up the mountain. 4     YHWH inscribed (wrote) on the tablets the same text (writing) as on the first, the Ten Commandments that He addressed to you on the mountain out of the fire on the day of the Assembly; and YHWH gave them to me.

2 וְאֶכְתֹּב עַל־הַלֻּחֹת אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר הָיוּ עַל־הַלֻּחֹת הָרִאשֹׁנִים אֲשֶׁר שִׁבַּרְתָּ וְשַׂמְתָּם בָּאָרוֹן׃

3 וָאַעַשׂ אֲרוֹן עֲצֵי שִׁטִּים וָאֶפְסֹל שְׁנֵי־לֻחֹת אֲבָנִים ךָּרִאשֹׁנִים וָאַעַל הָהָרָה וּשְׁנֵי הַלֻּחֹת בְּיָדִי׃

4 וַיִּכְתֹּב עַל־הַלֻּחֹת ךַּמִּכְתָּב הָרִאשׁוֹן אֵת עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אֲלֵיכֶם בָּהָר מִ‍תּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ בְּיוֹם הַקָּהָל וַיִּתְּנֵם יְהוָה אֵלָי׃

Devarim/Deuteronomy 17:18 (Tanakh/BHS)
 18When he is seated on his royal throne, he shall have a copy of this Teaching written for him on a scroll by the levitical priests

 

18 וְהָיָה כְשִׁבְתּוֹ עַל כִּסֵּא מַמְלַכְתּוֹ וְכָתַב לוֹ אֶת־מִשְׁנֵה הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת עַל־סֵפֶר מִלִּפְנֵי הַכֹּהֲנִים הַלְוִיִּם׃

Devarim/Deuteronomy 27:3-8 (Tanakh/BHS)

3     and inscribe upon them all the words of this Teaching. When you cross over to enter the land that YHWH Eloheykha is giving you, a land flowing with milk and honey, as YHWH, Elohey of your fathers, promised you—4     upon crossing the Jordan, you shall set up these stones, about which I charge you this day, on Mount Ebal, and coat them with plaster. 5     There, too, you shall build an altar to YHWH Eloheykha, an altar of stones. Do not wield an iron tool over them; 6     you must build the altar of YHWH Eloheykha of unhewn stones. You shall offer on it burnt offerings to YHWH Eloeykha, 7     and you shall sacrifice there offerings of well-being and eat them, rejoicing before YHWH Eloheykha. 8     And on those stones you shall inscribe every word of this Teaching most distinctly.

3 וְכָתַבְתָּ עֲלֵיהֶן אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת בְּעָבְרֶךָ לְמַעַן אֲשֶׁר תָּבֹא אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ אֶרֶץ זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבַשׁ כַּ‍אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי־אֲבֹתֶיךָ לָךְ׃

4 וְהָיָה בְּעָבְרְכֶם אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן תָּקִימוּ אֶת־הָאֲבָנִים הָאֵלֶּה אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם הַיּוֹם בְּהַר עֵיבָל וְשַׂדְתָּ אוֹתָם בַּשִּׂיד׃

5 וּבָנִיתָ שָּׁם מִזְבֵּחַ לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מִזְבַּח אֲבָנִים לֹא־תָנִיף עֲלֵיהֶם בַּרְזֶל׃

6 אֲבָנִים שְׁלֵמוֹת תִּבְנֶה אֶת־מִזְבַּח יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְהַעֲלִיתָ עָלָיו עוֹלֹת לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃

7 וְזָבַחְתָּ שְׁלָמִים וְאָכַלְתָּ שָּׁם וְשָׂמַחְתָּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃

8 וְכָתַבְתָּ עַל־הָאֲבָנִים אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת בַּאֵר הֵיטֵב׃ ס

Devarim/Deuteronomy 28:58-61 (Tanakh/BHS)

58If you fail to observe faithfully all the terms of this Teaching that are written in this book, to reverence this honored and awesome Name, YHWH Eloheykha, 59     YHWH will inflict extraordinary plagues upon you and your offspring, strange and lasting plagues, malignant and chronic diseases. 60     He will bring back upon you all the sicknesses of Egypt that you dreaded so, and they shall cling to you. 61     Moreover, YHWH will bring upon you all the other diseases and plagues that are not mentioned (written) in this book of Teaching, until you are wiped out.

58 אִם־לֹא תִשְׁמֹר לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת הַכְּתוּבִים בַּסֵּפֶר הַזֶּה לְיִרְאָה אֶת־הַשֵּׁם הַנִּכְבָּד וְהַנּוֹרָא הַזֶּה

אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃

59 וְהִפְלָא יְהוָה אֶת־מַכֹּתְךָ וְאֵת מַכּוֹת זַרְעֶךָ מַכּוֹת גְּדֹלוֹת וְנֶאֱמָנוֹת וָחֳלָיִם רָעִים וְנֶאֱמָנִים׃

60 וְהֵשִׁיב בְּךָ אֵת כָּל־מַדְוֵה מִצְרַיִם אֲשֶׁר יָגֹרְתָּ מִ‍פְּנֵיהֶם וְדָבְקוּ בָּךְ׃

61 גַּם כָּל־חֳלִי וְכָל־מַכָּה אֲשֶׁר לֹא כָתוּב בְּסֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת יַעְלֵם יְהוָה עָלֶיךָ עַד הִשָּׁמְדָךְ׃

Devarim/Deuteronomy 31:9,22,24 (Tanakh/BHS) 9     Moses wrote down this Teaching and gave it to the priests, sons of Levi, who carried the Ark of YHWH‘s Covenant, and to all the elders of Israel.

22     That day, Moses wrote down this poem and taught it to the Israelites.

23     And He charged Joshua son of Nun: “Be strong and resolute: for you shall bring the Israelites into the land that I promised them on oath, and I will be with you.”

24     When Moses had put down in writing the words of this Teaching to the very end,

9 וַיִּכְתֹּב מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת וַיִּתְּנָהּ אֶל־הַכֹּהֲנִים בְּנֵי לֵוִי הַנֹּשְׂאִים אֶת־אֲרוֹן בְּרִית יְהוָה וְאֶל־כָּל־זִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃

22 וַיִּכְתֹּב מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַשִּׁירָה הַזֹּאת בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וַיְלַמְּדָהּ אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃

23 וַיְצַו אֶת־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בִּן־נוּן וַיֹּאמֶר חֲזַק וֶאֱמָץ כִּי אַתָּה תָּבִיא אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי לָהֶם וְאָנֹכִי אֶהְיֶה עִמָּךְ׃

24 וַיְהִי כְּ‍כַלּוֹת מֹשֶׁה לִכְתֹּב אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה־הַזֹּאת עַל־סֵפֶר עַד תֻּמָּם׃

Yehoshua/Joshua 1:8 (Tanakh/BHS)

8Let not this Book of the Teaching cease from your lips, but recite it day and night, so that you may observe faithfully all that is written in it. Only then will you prosper in your undertakings and only then will you be successful.

8 לֹא־יָמוּשׁ סֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה הַזֶּה מִפִּיךָ וְהָגִיתָ בּוֹ יוֹמָם וָלַיְלָה לְמַעַן תִּשְׁמֹר לַעֲשׂוֹת כְּכָל־הַכָּתוּב בּוֹ כִּי־אָז תַּצְלִיחַ אֶת־דְּרָכֶךָ וְאָז תַּשְׂכִּיל׃

Yehoshua/Joshua 8:31 (Tanakh/BHS)

31as Moses, the servant of YHWH, had commanded the Israelites—as is written in the Book of the Teaching of Moses—an altar of unhewn stone upon which no iron had been wielded. They offered on it burnt offerings to YHWH, and brought sacrifices of well-being.

31 כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה מֹשֶׁה עֶבֶד־יְהוָה אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל ךַּכָּתוּב בְּסֵפֶר תּוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה מִזְבַּח אֲבָנִים שְׁלֵמוֹת אֲשֶׁר לֹא־הֵנִיף עֲלֵיהֶן בַּרְזֶל וַיַּעֲלוּ עָלָיו עֹלוֹת לַיהוָה וַיִּזְבְּחוּ שְׁלָמִים׃

Yehoshua/Joshua 8:32 (Tanakh/BHS)

32And there, on the stones, he inscribed a copy of the Teaching that Moses had written for the Israelites.

32 וַיִּכְתָּב־שָׁם עַל־הָאֲבָנִים אֵת מִשְׁנֵה תּוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר כָּתַב לִפְנֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃

Yehoshua/Joshua 8:34 (Tanakh/BHS)

34After that, he read all the words of the Teaching, the blessing and the curse, just as is written in the Book of the Teaching.

34 וְאַחֲרֵי־כֵן קָרָא אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַבְּרָכָה וְהַקְּלָלָה כְּכָל־הַכָּתוּב בְּסֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה׃

Yehoshua/Joshua 18:6 (Tanakh/BHS)

6When you have written down the description of the land in seven parts, bring it here to me. Then I will cast lots for you here before YHWH Eloheynu.

6 וְאַתֶּם תִּכְתְּבוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ שִׁבְעָה חֲלָקִים וַהֲבֵאתֶם אֵלַי הֵנָּה וְיָרִיתִי לָכֶם גּוֹרָל פֹּה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ׃

Yehoshua/Joshua 23:6 (Tanakh/BHS)

6“But be most resolute to observe faithfully all that is written in the Book of the Teaching of Moses, without ever deviating from it to the right or to the left,

6 וַחֲזַקְתֶּם מְאֹד לִשְׁמֹר וְלַעֲשׂוֹת אֵת כָּל־הַכָּתוּב בְּסֵפֶר תּוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה לְבִלְתִּי סוּר־מִמֶּנּוּ יָמִין וּשְׂמֹאול׃

Melekhim Aleph/I Kings 2:3 (Tanakh/BHS)

2:1     When David’s life was drawing to a close, he instructed his son Solomon as follows: 2     “I am going the way of all the earth; be strong and show yourself a man. 3     Keep the charge of YHWH Eloheykha, walking in His ways and following His laws, His commandments, His rules, and His admonitions as recorded in the Teaching of Moses, in order that you may succeed in whatever you undertake and wherever you turn.

3 וְשָׁמַרְתָּ אֶת־מִשְׁמֶרֶת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לָלֶכֶת בִּדְרָכָיו לִשְׁמֹר חֻקֹּתָיו מִצְוֹתָיו וּמִשְׁפָּטָיו וְעֵדְוֹתָיו ךַּכָּתוּב בְּתוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה לְמַעַן תַּשְׂכִּיל אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲשֶׂה וְאֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר תִּפְנֶה שָׁם׃

 

Melekhim Bet/2 Kings 14:6 (Tanakh/BHS)

6But he did not put to death the children of the assassins, in accordance with what is written in the Book of the Teaching of Moses, where YHWH commanded, “Parents shall not be put to death for children, nor children be put to death for parents; a person shall be put to death only for his own crime.”

6 וְאֶת־בְּנֵי הַמַּכִּים לֹא הֵמִית ךַּכָּתוּב בְּסֵפֶר תּוֹרַת־מֹשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה לֵאמֹר לֹא־יוּמְתוּ אָבוֹת עַל־בָּנִים וּבָנִים לֹא־יוּמְתוּ עַל־אָבוֹת כִּי אִם־אִישׁ בְּחֶטְאוֹ יוּמָת׃

Melekhim Bet/2 Kings 22:13 (Tanakh/BHS)

13     “Go, inquire of YHWH on my behalf, and on behalf of the people, and on behalf of all Judah, concerning the words of this scroll that has been found. For great indeed must be the wrath of YHWH that has been kindled against us, because our fathers did not obey the words of this scroll to do all that has been prescribed for us.”

13 לְכוּ דִרְשׁוּ אֶת־יְהוָה בַּעֲדִי וּבְעַד־הָעָם וּבְעַד כָּל־יְהוּדָה עַל־דִּבְרֵי הַסֵּפֶר הַנִּמְצָא הַזֶּה כִּי־גְדוֹלָה חֲמַת יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר־הִיא נִצְּתָה בָנוּ עַל אֲשֶׁר לֹא־שָׁמְעוּ אֲבֹתֵינוּ עַל־דִּבְרֵי הַסֵּפֶר הַזֶּה לַעֲשׂוֹת כְּ‍כָל־הַכָּתוּב עָלֵינוּ׃

Melekhim Bet/2 Kings 23: 3, 21,24  (Tanakh/BHS) 2     The king went up to the House of YHWH, together with all the men of Judah and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and the priests and prophets—all the people, young and old. And he read to them the entire text of the covenant scroll which had been found in the House of YHWH.

3     The king stood by the pillar and solemnized the covenant before YHWH: that they would follow YHWH and observe His commandments, His injunctions, and His laws with all their heart and soul; that they would fulfill all the terms of this covenant as inscribed upon the scroll. And all the people entered into the covenant.

21     The king commanded all the people, “Offer the passover sacrifice to YHWH your Elohim as prescribed in this scroll of the covenant.”

24     Josiah also did away with the necromancers and the mediums, the idols and the fetishes—all the detestable things that were to be seen in the land of Judah and Jerusalem. Thus he fulfilled the terms of the Teaching recorded in the scroll that the priest Hilkiah had found in the House of YHWH.

3 וַיַּעֲמֹד הַמֶּלֶךְ עַל־הָעַמּוּד וַיִּכְרֹת אֶת־הַבְּרִית לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לָלֶכֶת אַחַר יְהוָה וְלִשְׁמֹר מִצְוֹתָיו וְאֶת־עֵדְוֹתָיו וְאֶת־חֻקֹּתָיו בְּכָל־לֵב וּבְכָל־נֶפֶשׁ לְהָקִים אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הַבְּרִית הַזֹּאת הַכְּתֻבִים עַל־הַסֵּפֶר הַזֶּה וַיַּעֲמֹד כָּל־הָעָם בַּבְּרִית׃

21 וַיְצַו הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶת־כָּל־הָעָם לֵאמֹר עֲשׂוּ פֶסַח לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם ךַּכָּתוּב עַל סֵפֶר הַבְּרִית הַזֶּה׃

24 וְגַם אֶת־הָאֹבוֹת וְאֶת־הַיִּדְּעֹנִים וְאֶת־הַתְּרָפִים וְאֶת־הַגִּלֻּלִים וְאֵת כָּל־הַשִּׁקֻּצִים אֲשֶׁר נִרְאוּ בְּאֶרֶץ יְהוּדָה וּבִירוּשָׁלִַם בִּעֵר יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ לְמַעַן הָקִים אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַכְּתֻבִים עַל־הַסֵּפֶר אֲשֶׁר מָצָא חִלְקִיָּהוּ הַכֹּהֵן בֵּית יְהוָה׃

Divrei HaYamin Aleph/1 Chronicles 16:40 (Tanakh/BHS)

40     to sacrifice burnt offerings to YHWH on the altar of the burnt offering regularly, morning and evening, in accordance with what was prescribed in the Teaching of YHWH with which He charged Israel.

40 לְהַעֲלוֹת עֹלוֹת לַיהוָה עַל־מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה תָּמִיד לַבֹּקֶר וְלָעָרֶב וּלְכָל־הַכָּתוּב בְּתוֹרַת יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃

Divrei HaYamin Bet/2 Chronicles 23:18 (Tanakh/BHS)

18     Jehoiada put the officers of the House of YHWH in the charge of Levite priests whom David had assigned over the House of YHWH to offer up burnt offerings, as is prescribed in the Teaching of Moses, accompanied by joyful song as ordained by David.

18 וַיָּשֶׂם יְהוֹיָדָע פְּקֻדֹּת בֵּית יְהוָה בְּיַד הַכֹּהֲנִים הַלְוִיִּם אֲשֶׁר חָלַק דָּוִיד עַל־בֵּית יְהוָה לְהַעֲלוֹת עֹלוֹת יְהוָה ךַּכָּתוּב בְּתוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה בְּשִׂמְחָה וּבְשִׁיר עַל יְדֵי דָוִיד׃

Divrei HaYamin Bet/2 Chronicles 25:4 (Tanakh/BHS)

4But he did not put their children to death for [he acted] in accordance with what is written in the Teaching, in the Book of Moses, where YHWH commanded “Parents shall not die for children, nor shall children die for parents, but every person shall die only for his own crime.”-

4 וְאֶת־בְּנֵיהֶם לֹא הֵמִית כִּי ךַכָּתוּב בַּתּוֹרָה בְּסֵפֶר מֹשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה לֵאמֹר לֹא־יָמוּתוּ אָבוֹת עַל־בָּנִים וּבָנִים לֹא־יָמוּתוּ עַל־אָבוֹת כִּי אִישׁ בְּחֶטְאוֹ יָמוּתוּ׃ פ

Divrei HaYamin Bet/2 Chronicles 30:5 (Tanakh/BHS)

5to issue a decree and proclaim throughout all Israel from Beer-sheba to Dan that they come and keep the Passover for YHWH Elohim of Israel in Jerusalem—not often did they act in accord with what was written.

5 וַיַּעֲמִידוּ דָבָר לְהַעֲבִיר קוֹל בְּכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל מִבְּאֵר־שֶׁבַע וְעַד־דָּן לָבוֹא לַעֲשׂוֹת פֶּסַח לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּירוּשָׁלִָם כִּי לֹא לָרֹב עָשׂוּ ךַּכָּתוּב׃

Divrei HaYamin Bet/2 Chronicles 30:18 (Tanakh/BHS)

 

18For most of the people—many from Ephraim and Manasseh, Issachar and Zebulun—had not purified themselves, yet they ate the paschal sacrifice in violation of what was written. Hezekiah prayed for them, saying, “The good YHWH will provide atonement for

18 כִּי מַרְבִּית הָעָם רַבַּת מֵאֶפְרַיִם וּמְנַשֶּׁה יִשָּׂשכָר וּזְבֻלוּן לֹא הִטֶּהָרוּ כִּי־אָכְלוּ אֶת־הַפֶּסַח בְּלֹא ךַכָּתוּב כִּי הִתְפַּלֵּל יְחִזְקִיָּהוּ עֲלֵיהֶם לֵאמֹר יְהוָה הַטּוֹב יְכַפֵּר בְּעַד׃

Divrei HaYamin Bet/2 Chronicles 34:21 (Tanakh/BHS)

21“Go, inquire of YHWH on my behalf and on behalf of those who remain in Israel and Judah concerning the words of the scroll that has been found, for great indeed must be the wrath of YHWH that has been poured down upon us because our fathers did not obey the word of YHWH and do all that is written in this scroll.”

21 לְכוּ דִרְשׁוּ אֶת־יְהוָה בַּעֲדִי וּבְעַד הַנִּשְׁאָר בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל וּבִיהוּדָה עַל־דִּבְרֵי הַסֵּפֶר אֲשֶׁר נִמְצָא כִּי־גְדוֹלָה חֲמַת־יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר נִתְּכָה בָנוּ עַל אֲשֶׁר לֹא־שָׁמְרוּ אֲבוֹתֵינוּ אֶת־דְּבַר יְהוָה לַעֲשׂוֹת כְּכָל־הַכָּתוּב עַל־הַסֵּפֶר הַזֶּה׃ פ

Divrei HaYamin Bet/2 Chronicles 34:24 (Tanakh/BHS)

 24‘Thus said YHWH: I am going to bring disaster upon this place and its inhabitants—all the curses that are written in the scroll that was read to the king of Judah

24 כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה הִנְנִי מֵבִיא רָעָה עַל־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה וְעַל־יוֹשְׁבָיו אֵת כָּל־הָאָלוֹת הַכְּתוּבוֹת עַל־הַסֵּפֶר אֲשֶׁר קָרְאוּ לִפְנֵי מֶלֶךְ יְהוּדָה׃

Divrei HaYamin Bet/2 Chronicles 34:31 (Tanakh/BHS) 31The king stood in his place and solemnized the covenant before YHWH: to follow YHWH and observe His commandments, His injunctions, and His laws with all his heart and soul, to fulfill all the terms of the covenant written in this scroll

31 וַיַּעֲמֹד הַמֶּלֶךְ עַל־עָמְדוֹ וַיִּכְרֹת אֶת־הַבְּרִית לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לָלֶכֶת אַחֲרֵי יְהוָה וְלִשְׁמוֹר אֶת־מִצְוֹתָיו וְעֵדְוֹתָיו וְחֻקָּיו בְּכָל־לְבָבוֹ וּבְכָל־נַפְשׁוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הַבְּרִית הַכְּתוּבִים עַל־הַסֵּפֶר הַזֶּה׃

Ezra 3:2 (Tanakh/BHS)

2Then Jeshua son of Jozadak and his brother priests, and Zerubbabel son of Shealtiel and his brothers set to and built the altar of the Elohim of Israel to offer burnt offerings upon it as is written in the Teaching of Moses, the man of Elohim.

2 וַיָּקָם יֵשׁוּעַ בֶּן־יוֹצָדָק וְאֶחָיו הַכֹּהֲנִים וּזְרֻבָּבֶל בֶּן־שְׁאַלְתִּיאֵל וְאֶחָיו וַיִּבְנוּ אֶת־מִזְבַּח אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לְהַעֲלוֹת עָלָיו עֹלוֹת ךַּכָּתוּב בְּתוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה אִישׁ־הָאֱלֹהִים׃

Ezra 3:4 (Tanakh/BHS)

4Then they celebrated the festival of Tabernacles as is written, with its daily burnt offerings in the proper quantities, on each day as is prescribed for it,

4 וַיַּעֲשׂוּ אֶת־חַג הַסֻּכּוֹת ךַּכָּתוּב וְעֹלַת יוֹם בְּיוֹם בְּמִסְפָּר כְּמִשְׁפַּט דְּבַר־יוֹם בְּיוֹמוֹ׃

Nehemyah/Nehemiah 7:5 (Tanakh/BHS)

5My Elohim put it into my mind to assemble the nobles, the prefects, and the people, in order to register them by families. I found the genealogical register of those who were the first to come up, and there I found written:

5 וַיִּתֵּן אֱלֹהַי אֶל־לִבִּי וָאֶקְבְּצָה אֶת־הַחֹרִים וְאֶת־הַסְּגָנִים וְאֶת־הָעָם לְהִתְיַחֵשׂ וָאֶמְצָא סֵפֶר הַיַּחַשׂ הָעוֹלִים בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה וָאֶמְצָא כָּתוּב בּוֹ׃ פ

Nehemyah/Nehemiah 8:14 (Tanakh/BHS)

14They found written in the Teaching that YHWH had commanded Moses that the Israelites must dwell in booths during the festival of the seventh month,

14 וַיִּמְצְאוּ כָּתוּב בַּתּוֹרָה אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה בְּיַד־מֹשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר יֵשְׁבוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּסֻּכּוֹת בֶּחָג בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי׃

Nehemyah/Nehemiah 8:15 (Tanakh/BHS)

15and that they must announce and proclaim throughout all their towns and Jerusalem as follows, “Go out to the mountains and bring leafy branches of olive trees, pine trees, myrtles, palms and [other] leafy trees to make booths, as it is written.”

15 וַאֲשֶׁר יַשְׁמִיעוּ וְיַעֲבִירוּ קוֹל בְּכָל־עָרֵיהֶם וּבִירוּשָׁלִַם לֵאמֹר צְאוּ הָהָר וְהָבִיאוּ עֲלֵי־זַיִת וַעֲלֵי־עֵץ שֶׁמֶן וַעֲלֵי הֲדַס וַעֲלֵי תְמָרִים וַעֲלֵי עֵץ עָבֹת לַעֲשֹׂת סֻכֹּת ךַּכָּתוּב׃ פ

Nehemyah/Nehemiah 13:1 (Tanakh/BHS)

1 At that time they read to the people from the Book of Moses, and it was found written that no Ammonite or Moabite might ever enter the congregation of Elohim,

1 בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא נִקְרָא בְּסֵפֶר מֹשֶׁה בְּאָזְנֵי הָעָם וְנִמְצָא כָּתוּב בּוֹ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָבוֹא עַמֹּנִי וּמֹאָבִי בִּקְהַל הָאֱלֹהִים עַד־עוֹלָם׃

Dani’el/Daniel 9:11 (Tanakh/BHS)

11All Israel has violated Your teaching and gone astray, disobeying You; so the curse and the oath written in the Teaching of Moses, the servant of Elohim, have been poured down upon us, for we have sinned against Him

11 וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל עָבְרוּ אֶת־תּוֹרָתֶךָ וְסוֹר לְבִלְתִּי שְׁמוֹעַ בְּקֹלֶךָ וַתִּתַּךְ עָלֵינוּ הָאָלָה וְהַשְּׁבֻעָה אֲשֶׁר כְּתוּבָה בְּתוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה עֶבֶד־הָאֱלֹהִים כִּי חָטָאנוּ לוֹ׃

Dani’el/Daniel 9:13 (Tanakh/BHS)

13All that calamity, just as is written in the Teaching of Moses, came upon us, yet we did not supplicate YHWH our Elohim, did not repent of our iniquity or become wise through Your truth.

13 כַּאֲשֶׁר כָּתוּב בְּתוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה אֵת כָּל־הָרָעָה הַזֹּאת בָּאָה עָלֵינוּ וְלֹא־חִלִּינוּ אֶת־פְּנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ לָשׁוּב מֵעֲוֹנֵנוּ וּלְהַשְׂכִּיל בַּאֲמִתֶּךָ׃

 

The other part we are told is that though there is no direct reference to a oral torah, that there is the word torot which is the plural for torah.  So lets look at the references to this.

 

Shemot/Exodus 18:15-16

 

15     Moses replied to his father-in-law, “It is because the people come to me to inquire of Elohim. 16     When they have a dispute, it comes before me, and I decide between one person and another, and I make known the laws and [his] teachings (ve’et torotayv  וְאֶת־תּוֹרֹתָיו) of Ha’Elohim.”

 

This would appear to reflect more than one in that it is plural.  Later in the same chapter it shows it similarly.

 

Shemot/Exodus 18:19-20

 

19     Now listen to me. I will give you counsel, and Ha’Elohim be with you! You represent the people before HaElohim: you bring the disputes before HaElohim, 20     and enjoin upon them the laws and the teachings (ve’et hatorot וְאֶת־הַתּוֹרֹת), and make known to them the way they are to go and the practices they are to follow.

 

We also see that here torot also is referred to in a similar fashion.  However, in order for this to be true them we must see that this is consistently used this way.

 

Vayiqra/Leviticus 26:46

 

46     These are the laws (hachuqqim הַחֻקִּים), rules (vehamish’patim  וְהַמִּשְׁפָּטִים), and instructions (vehatorot  וְהַתּוֹרֹת) that YHWH established, through Moses on Mount Sinai, between Himself and the Israelite people.

 

Here we see all used in the plural form thus showing the intent here was to show torot as teachings and not two torah’s. 

 

Vayiqra/Leviticus 11:46

 

46     These are the instructions (torat תּוֹרַת) concerning animals, birds, all living creatures that move in water, and all creatures that swarm on earth,

 

Torat is also plural and shows us that this word use in plural form does not indicate a second torah orally given but teachings.  Now, how do I get this?  Torah is reference number 8451 and 8452 (Tav-Vav-Resh-Hey) and is a feminine noun.  The verb it is from is reference number 3384 which is Yarah (Yod-Resh-Hey) in its Kal form it is stated as shoot or cast.  In the Hiphil is is used for to teach.  As one shoots forth spoken words.

 

Shemot/Exodus 4:12 (10-12), 15

 

10     But Moses said to YHWH, “Please, YHWH, I have never been a man of words, either in times past or now that You have spoken to Your servant; I am slow of speech and slow of tongue.” 11     And YHWH said to him, “Who gives man speech? Who makes him dumb or deaf, seeing or blind? Is it not I, YHWH? 12     Now go, and I will be with you as you speak and will instruct you (vehoreytikha  וְהוֹרֵיתִיךָ)what to say.”

 

Here we see that in the general sense of instruction it is used here.  This is to tell us that this is all he will command not what other men will command.

 

15     You shall speak to him and put the words in his mouth—I will be with you and with him as you speak, and tell (ve’horeytiy וְהוֹרֵיתִי) both of you what to do

 

After Moshe insists he cannot speak well that YHWH give him Aharon as his spokesman.  But still is does not mean that Moshe could just make up any rule because YHWH instructed them both.

 

Shemot/Exodus 24:12

 

12     YHWH said to Moses, “Come up to Me on the mountain and wait there, and I will give you the stone tablets with the teachings (vahatorah וְהַתּוֹרָה) and commandments (vahamitzvah וְהַמִּצְוָה) which I have inscribed to instruct them (katav’tiy lehorotam  כָּתַבְתִּי לְהוֹרֹתָם).”

 

The use of the singular with the Ha prefix shows us these are the accumulation of all teachings and all from his commands.  We have learned that torah is from Yarah, which in the Hiphil form is to teach and so all teaching are included in what was inscribed.  We also know that min tzavah is Mitzvah and thus with the ha prefix we see that all he commanded are mitzvah for us.

 

Vayiqra/Leviticus 10:11 (8-11)

 

8     And YHWH spoke to Aaron, saying: 9     Drink no wine or other intoxicant, you or your sons, when you enter the Tent of Meeting, that you may not die. This is a law for all time throughout the ages, 10     for you must distinguish between the sacred and the profane, and between the unclean and the clean; 11     and you must teach (ulehorot  וּלְהוֹרֹת) the Israelites all the laws (hachuqqim) which YHWH has imparted (diber) to them through Moses.

 

YHWH told Aharon and he would have instructed his sons after him.   One of there jobs was to teach the children of Israel the practices that were spoken to Moshe.  Again this is to teach.

 

Devarim/Dueteronomy 17:10-11 (8-11)

 

8     If a case is too baffling for you to decide, be it a controversy over homicide, civil law, or assault—matters of dispute in your courts—you shall promptly repair to the place that YHWH Eloheykha will have chosen, 9     and appear before the levitical priests, or the magistrate in charge at the time, and present your problem. When they have announced to you the verdict in the case, 10     you shall carry out the verdict that is announced to you from that place that YHWH chose, observing scrupulously all their instructions to you (yorukha  יוֹרוּךָ). 11     You shall act in accordance with the instructions (hatorah  הַתּוֹרָה) given you and the ruling [teachings] (yorukha  יוֹרוּךָ) handed down to you; you must not deviate from the verdict that they announce to you either to the right or to the left.

 

Why were they to act only with the teachings given.  What were judges to teach the people like Moshe did.  He taught from the teachings given to him from HaTorah.

 

Devarim 1:13-15

 

13     Pick from each of your tribes men who are wise, discerning, and experienced, and I will appoint them as your heads.” 14     You answered me and said, “What you propose to do is good.” 15     So I took your tribal leaders, wise and experienced men, and appointed them heads over you: chiefs of thousands, chiefs of hundreds, chiefs of fifties, and chiefs of tens, and officials for your tribes. 16     I charged your magistrates at that time as follows, “Hear out your fellow men, and decide justly between any man and a fellow Israelite or a stranger. 17     You shall not be partial in judgment: hear out low and high alike. Fear no man, for judgment is Elohim’s. And any matter that is too difficult for you, you shall bring to me and I will hear it.” 18     Thus I instructed you, at that time, about the various things that you should do.

 

Moshe taught them what he knew.  But what did Moshe teach?

 

Shemot/Exodus 18:

 

15     Moses replied to his father-in-law, “It is because the people come to me to inquire of Elohim. 16     When they have a dispute, it comes before me, and I decide between one person and another, and I make known the laws (et chuqqey  אֶת־חֻקֵּי) and teachings (vaet torotayv וְאֶת־תּוֹרֹתָיו) of Elohim.”

17     But Moses’ father-in-law said to him, “The thing you are doing is not right; 18     you will surely wear yourself out, and these people as well. For the task is too heavy for you; you cannot do it alone. 19     Now listen to me. I will give you counsel, and  be with you! You represent the people before Elohim: you bring the disputes before Elohim, 20     and enjoin upon them the laws and the teachings, and make known to them the way they are to go and the practices they are to follow. 21     You shall also seek out from among all the people capable men who fear Elohim, trustworthy men who spurn ill-gotten gain. Set these over them as chiefs of thousands, hundreds, fifties, and tens, and 22     let them judge the people at all times. Have them bring every major dispute to you, but let them decide every minor dispute themselves. Make it easier for yourself by letting them share the burden with you. 23     If you do this—and Elohim so commands you—you will be able to bear up; and all these people too will go home unwearied.”

24     Moses heeded his father-in-law and did just as he had said. 25     Moses chose capable men out of all Israel, and appointed them heads over the people—chiefs of thousands, hundreds, fifties, and tens; 26     and they judged the people at all times: the difficult matters they would bring to Moses, and all the minor matters they would decide themselves.

 

Divrei HaYamim Bet/2 Chronicles 15:3 (1-8)

 

15:1     The spirit of Elohim came upon Azariah son of Oded. 2     He came to Asa and said to him, “Listen to me, Asa and all Judah and Benjamin; YHWH is with you as long as you are with Him. If you turn to Him, He will respond to you, but if you forsake Him, He will forsake you. 3     Israel has gone many days without the true Elohey, without a priest (Kohen Moreh – teaching Priest) to give instruction (torah תוֹרָה) and without Teaching. 4     But in distress it returned to YHWH Elohey of Israel, and sought Him, and He responded to them. 5     At those times, no wayfarer was safe, for there was much tumult among all the inhabitants of the lands. 6     Nation was crushed by nation and city by city, for Elohim threw them into panic with every kind of trouble. 7     As for you, be strong, do not be disheartened, for there is reward for your labor.”

8     When Asa heard these words, the prophecy of Oded the prophet, he took courage and removed the abominations from the entire land of Judah and Benjamin and from the cities that he had captured in the hill country of Ephraim. He restored the altar of YHWH in front of the porch of YHWH.

 

We can see that what was written was given to us.  Moshe taught what was given to him, which was also, wrote down.  Even the magistrates are to judge by haTorah and rule based on it.  So what distinguishes a Karaite is that we follow what is written the teachings with were given to Moshe by YHWH and written down and given to the Priests (Kohen)  to teach and to the magistrates to judge us by.  The written word of YHWH.